The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex, and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War, La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo, Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, "The French Army of the Thirty Years' War: Introduction and Maison du Roi", "Review Article: Spain and the Netherlands in the 17th Century", "Military developments in the Thirty Years War", "Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560–1715", "German 'witch' declared innocent after 385 years", "The Battle of Wittstock 1636: Conflicting Reports on a Swedish Victory in Germany", "The Socio-Economic Relations of Warfare and the Military Mortality Crises of the Thirty Years' War", "Real Wages and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth in Germany, 16th to 19th Centuries", "The Long-term Impact of the Thirty Years War: What Grain Price Data Reveal", "The Origins of the Thirty Years War and the Structure of European Politics", http://www.mdsz.thulb.uni-jena.de/sz/index.php, Project "Peace of Westphalia" (among others with Essay Volumes of the 26th Exhibition of the Council of Europe "1648: War and Peace in Europe", 1998/99), BBC Radio4 documentary – The Invention of Germany: The Thirty Years' War and Magdeburg, - Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Westphalian Myth, "The Thirty Years' War - how was peace achieved? Transylvania (until 1621)[1] Frederick and the remnants of Mansfeld's army took refuge in the Dutch Republic. This resulted in a Gordian tangle of alliances as princes and prelates called in foreign powers to aid them. [83] As with Rocroi, Condé was unable to fully exploit this success; his losses shocked the French court, while 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. [92], In 1580, Philip II of Spain became ruler of the Portuguese Empire, and the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War began as an offshoot of the Dutch fight for independence from Spain. Bohemia (until 1620) This resulted in the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, making peace with France and Sweden respectively.  Dutch Republic (from 1619) The social and economic impact of the Thirty Years War varied throughout Europe. Despite these setbacks, the Habsburg lands suffered less from the war than many others and became a far more coherent bloc with the absorption of Bohemia, and restoration of Catholicism throughout their territories. The advance quickly fell apart; Mansfeld was defeated at Dessau Bridge in April, and when Maurice refused to support him, Christian of Brunswick fell back on Wolfenbüttel, where he died of disease shortly after. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. It's angry, loud, fast hardcore music made by guys who like to ride skateboards and drink Milwaukee's Best. End of attempts by Roman Catholic powers to impose the Counter Reformation abroad by war though some still pursued this by force in their own realms. It also provided opportunities for external opponents of the Habsburgs, including the Ottoman Empire and Savoy. [113] Although suggested towns over-stated losses to avoid taxes, individual records show serious declines; from 1620 to 1650, the population of Munich fell from 22,000 to 17,000, that of Augsburg from 48,000 to 21,000. This was the reason behind Spanish involvement in the Jülich dispute; by 1618, the only part not controlled by Spain ran through the Electoral Palatinate. Spain had lost not only the Netherlands but its dominant position in western Europe. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). At the same time, the Swedes under Johan Banér marched into Brandenburg; victory at Wittstock on 4 October 1636 regained most of the ground lost after Nördlingen. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. It includes factors unrelated to death or disease, such as permanent migration to areas outside the Empire, or lower birthrates, a less obvious impact of extended warfare. [131], Although religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe with religion as its primary driver; later such conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. [54], In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Straslund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. Beginning in 1618, the Thirty Years’ War was, at heart, a struggle for constitutional and religious power within the Holy Roman Empire – Europe’s largest and most populous state. The chief agents of the Counter-Reformation were similarly split, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, the Capuchins France. Peace of Westphalia A specially designed Malefizhaus, or 'crime house', was erected containing a torture chamber, whose walls were adorned with Bible verses, where the accused were interrogated. While Spain remained the dominant power in Italy, its reliance on long exterior lines of communication was a potential weakness, especially the Spanish Road; this overland route allowed them to move recruits and supplies from Naples and Lombardy to their army in Flanders. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. The Thirty Years’ War began when three representatives of the Holy Roman Empire were thrown out the window of the royal castle in Prague in 1618, sparking a continent-wide religious conflict. It's on the stereo of speeding cars and blasting out of the headphones of delinquents. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. Doing so turned the conflict into a contest between Imperial authority and "German liberties", while Catholics saw an opportunity to regain lands lost since 1555. [63], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. It was actually several wars in one. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. Possession of these fortresses gave France effective control of Piedmont, protected the Alpine passes into Southern France, and allowed them to threaten Milan at will. [79] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. [87], French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. [91], Throughout the 1630s, attempts to increase taxes in order to pay for the costs of the war in the Netherlands led to protests throughout Spanish territories; in 1640, these erupted into open revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, supported by Richelieu as part of his 'war by diversion'. The Thirty Years’ War was a dark page in European history that was associated with a remapping of the continent. Until the mid-20th century, it was seen as predominantly a German civil war and considered one of the European wars of religion. The range of confessions in Germany, 1650, as a result of the Thirty Years' War. Gustavus Adolphus despatched several thousand Scots and Swedish troops under Alexander Leslie to Stralsund, who was appointed governor. More common were disputes such as the 1606 'battle of the flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. [82], In May, a Bavarian army under Franz von Mercy destroyed a French detachment at Herbsthausen, but he was defeated and killed at Second Nördlingen in August. [125] A scathing condemnation of the trials, Cautio Criminalis, was written by Professor and poet Friedrich Spee, himself a Jesuit and former "witch confessor". This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Thirty-Years-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Thirty Years War, Thirty Years’ War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Thirty Years’ War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Europe, history of: The Thirty Years’ War, Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimental, count-duke de Olivares, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne. The emperor's prerogatives had never been clearly defined; a ruler who knew how to exploit his considerable informal powers of patronage could enjoy a great deal of authority, but a weak monarch could easily be reduced to a mere figurehead. Additionally, a 15 minute YouTube video … Updates? An overland route connecting Habsburg possessions in Italy to Flanders, it allowed him to move troops and supplies by road, rather than sea where the Dutch navy held the advantage. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. After tense negotiations with Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, in the April 1635 Treaty of Compiègne Richelieu agreed to provide additional subsidies, and declared war on Spain in May, beginning the 1635 to 1659 Franco-Spanish War. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. 2. Introduction. [96] The Dutch were also given a monopoly over trade conducted through the Scheldt estuary, confirming the commercial ascendancy of Amsterdam; Antwerp, capital of the Spanish Netherlands and previously the most important port in Northern Europe, would not recover until the late 19th century. [132] At the same time, it created the outlines of a Europe that persisted until 1815 and beyond; the nation-state of France, the beginnings of a unified Germany and separate Austro-Hungarian bloc, a diminished but still significant Spain, independent smaller states like Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, along with a Low Countries split between the Dutch Republic and what became Belgium in 1830. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. Ferdinand and his advisors were greatly concerned by the brutal nature of the Würzburg and Bamberg trials, fearing they would discredit the Counter-Reformation, and active persecution largely ended by 1630. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. The Thirty Years War was a series of battles that were fought primarily on German soil but also in Central Europe. This allowed Bavaria, Brandenburg-Prussia, Saxony and others to pursue their own policies, while Sweden gained a permanent foothold in the Empire. [77] In 1640, the French captured Arras, and over-ran the rest of Artois, while protests against heavy taxes led to revolts in Portugal and Catalonia. [48], Ferdinand had paid Wallenstein for his support against Frederick with estates confiscated from the Bohemian rebels, and now contracted with him to conquer the north on a similar basis. [27], Since Emperor Matthias had no surviving children, in July 1617 Philip III of Spain agreed to support Ferdinand's election as king of Bohemia and Hungary.  Brunswick-Lüneburg (1634–1642) Thirty Years War WHEN? The Thirty Years' War, a series of wars fought by European nations for various reasons, ignited in 1618 over an attempt by the king of Bohemia (the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II) … While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. By the end of the war, the shape of Europe had been greatly changed. In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was formed to challenge this control and captured the Brazilian port of Salvador in 1624. Timeline of the Thirty Years War. 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