However, in the similar looking red sorrel plant, the flower parts do not have teeth or tubercles. Curly dock grows throughout the US and southern Canada. (source) Range and Identification of Curly Dock Curly dock is an herbaceous perennial with tall, erect stems. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a hardy perennial weed found in most American gardens that is anchored by a branched taproot. Acknowledgements Photo by Thayne Tuason. Weeds of the Northeast. Identification and control options for weeds common to turf, agriculture, and gardens in New York; uses a very simple decision tree to identify your weed. Curly dock stem, stem leaves, and seeds. See comparisons of horseradish and curly dock below: horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Corky structures on the outside of the calyx allow the fruit to float on water, thus facilitating dispersal. This perennial plant is not usually a problem in cultivated row crops. Younger plants tend to have foliage with less curly margins. New green leaves that emerge in spring often are tinged with red. Home Blog PLant encyclopedia Subscription What the press says about us Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed moist places. Curly dock cotyledon and first leaf. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a perennial native to Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. Established plants emerge from the taproot in midspring, producing a robust rosette. Stems are solitary or occur in small groups from the root crown. sour dock yellow dock This plant and the related entity italicized and indented above can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Curly dock was introduced into the U.S., possibly arriving as a seed contaminant in the early 1600’s when the British brought crops and cattle to New England 1. Range and Identification of Curly Dock. A stout, somewhat branched, yellow taproot may extend as deep as 4 feet, with side branches up to 3 feet long. The flowering stem is loosely branched and green, non-showy flowers cluster along its upper portion in a whorl. Curly dock comes from Eurasia, so it's an invasive species here in the Americas. Curly dock (Rumex crispus L.) is a weed of low-maintenance orchards, nursery crops, landscapes, roadsides, pastures and forage crops. The young leaves are edible but become bitter when warm weather arrives. A single plant can produce 40,000 seeds. Flowers are in clusters (15 -60 cm long) on narrowly spaced branches on the upper portions of the elongating stem. Seeds germinate from late spring through early fall producing seedlings. Fortunately, there is a European weed called curly dock, or dock plant, that is as pervasive as it is persistent. Flower parts that adhere to the fruit of curly dock can be toothed or have tubercles. Emergence: Emerges from soil depths of … The first few leaves are egg shaped to football shaped with a rounded tip and a tapered base. The leaves, stem, and seeds of broad-leaved dock can be eaten like those of curly dock, but the root does not have the same medicinal qualities. But the leaf shape is highly variable, both on a single plant, and from plant to plant. Common names are tricky for that very reason; they change from place to place. Cornell University’s Turf and Landscape weed identification app provides recommendations for chemical management of curly dock. Younger plants tend to have foliage with less curly margins. Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature Top of page The Latin name Rumex crispus was given by Linnaeus and appears to be the only name used in modern literature. Rumex crispus - curly dock - is similar in appearance, but with thinner and wave-like leaves. Curly Dock and Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acetosella) are the two known host plants of the butterfly, American Copper. This perennial plant is not usually a problem in cultivated row crops. This plant is also known as curled dock, narrow dock and curly leaf dock. Learning how to identify broad leaf dock is important for successful foraging. The one-seeded fruit (achene) is triangular in cross-section, smooth, glossy, and reddish brown. Curly dock stands erect and grows 2 to 5 feet (0.6 to 1.5 m) tall. But the leaf shape is highly variable, both on a single plant, and from plant to plant. Flowers/Fruit: Plants flowers primarily in June, but also throughout the summer. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. Besides curly dock, broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius) is the main species that’s eaten. Native species include Slender Dock (Rumex brownii), Wiry Dock (R. dumosus), Mud Dock (R. bidens) and Glistening Dock (R. crystallinus). This plant is instantly recognizable, and one of the ones that seem to "Spring up everywhere" once you know what it looks like! For those who need to know precisely and with absolute certainty which plant they're dealing with, use the botanical Latin name. For established curly dock plants, fall herbicide applications are the most effective. (To minnesippi) If you're not sure where it came from (neither you or your mother planted it) just make sure that it's really horseradish and not curly dock (see below) - if it's horseradish the root should smell like horseradish! Dock is from the Old English docce meaning a coarse weedy herb. Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. Seeds may be dispersed by wind and water. If you have a disability and are having trouble accessing information on this website or need materials in an alternate format, contact web-accessibility@cornell.edu for assistance. Also, their leaves may be slightly rounder and broader than those of mature curly dock plants. Broad leaf dock top, curly dock bottom. Curly Dock Curly dock may also be called yellow dock, sour dock, or narrowleaf dock, depending on where they are purchased. It is widely naturalised throughout the temperate world and has become a serious invasive species in many areas, including throughout North America , southern South America , New Zealand and parts of Australia . The attribute 'crispus' means curled, which alludes to the curly and wavy leaves of this species, as does the common name 'curled dock'. Stems turn red-brown at maturity and often p… Get Flash Player Various upland gamebirds and granivorous songbirds eat the seeds of docks. Stems are erect and 1 to 4 feet tall. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. The fruiting stem dies back in mid to late summer, and the fruits and stems turn a distinctive rusty brown. The succulent cotyledons (seed leaves) are three times longer than they are wide, have a somewhat rounded tip, and a stalk about as long or longer than the leaf blade. Curly dock leaves are lance shaped; those of red sorrel leaves are arrow shaped. Curly dock Rumex crispus L.. Family: Polygonaceae (Smartweed family) Life cycle: Perennial, reproducing by seed Native status: Introduced Habitat: Pastures, roadsides, low maintenance turf, waste areas General description: Basal rosette of elongated leaves (up to 12 in long) with wavy margins.Leaves are a dull green. . Flowers have greenish sepals that become reddish brown at maturity. Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed m… Leaves are alternate to one another along the stem. Stems are often unbranched below the flower head. In more detail, the calyx of curly dock has smooth margins while the calyx of broad-leaved dock has horned margins. Varieties and Subspecies of Curly Dock Mowing will prevent seed production and reduce top growth. A papery sheath surrounds the stem at each node. Non-chemical control:  Michigan State University has a detailed profile of non-chemical management for curly dock. Curly Dock looks just what it sounds like; the leaves are narrow and curl along the edges, they are about 15 to 30cm long and get shorter and smaller as they grow closer to the top of the plant. Also, their leaves may be slightly rounder and broader than those of mature curly dock … Mature plant: Emerging perennials produce a robust basal rosette of 15 – 30 cm long leaves with wavy margins. Curly dock (also called "curled dock" or "yellow dock") is more than just distinctive, it's also useful: curly dock serves as a home remedy to treat stinging nettle burns--though it can be toxic to consume. Leaves are hairless. Curly dock can be confused with other docks like broadleaf dock (Rumex obtusifolius), however, the leaves of broadleaf dock have heart-shaped lobed at the base and are much wider and less wavy than those of curly dock.Chicory, dandelion and buckhorn plantain also grow in a rosette like curly dock. It is found throughout California up to an elevation of 8200 feet (2500 m). Get PDF Reader They suggest chopping the plant a couple inches below ground, or any cultivation practice that will chop and bury the plant’s taproot. Curled Dock refers to the curled or wavy edges of the leaves and it membership of the Dock genus. Spring application of labeled herbicides are effective in controlling seedling curly dock. Cornell University’s Turfgrass and Landscape Weed ID app. Curly dock seedlings vary in color, from entirely green to red tinged in cooler months. It looks edible but I'd like to know for sure what it is before I try eating some. Curly dock grows throughout the US and southern Canada. This plant also produces flowers that are mostly green with a potential hint of … Curly dock grows in a wide variety of habitats, including disturbed soil, waste areas, roadsides, fields/meadows, shorelines, and forest edges. An ocrea surrounds the stem at the base of the petiole. As a member of the buckwheat family, the plant has a characteristic membranous sheath at the leaf base and usually swollen stem joints (nodes). Michigan State University has a detailed profile of non-chemical management for curly dock. Fruits are covered with a papery, three-winged membrane with veins. Today's featured plant is Curly Dock, Rumex crispus. Curly dock is also known as yellow dock, narrowleaf dock, sour dock, yaller dock, curled dock, Bitter Dock, Bloodwort, Coffee-weed, Garden-patience, Narrowdock, Out-sting and Winter Dock. Curly Dock Control. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Click on a link or image below to view the complete guide. The seeds are useful and interestingly, yellow dock seeds are viable for up to 80 years. Identification and Life Cycle. Uva R H, Neal J C, DiTomaso J M. 1997. Lower leaves are longer and more rounded than the stem leaves. I may have planted it myself since I took some old seeds of a wide variety and just threw them around in a bare area of my yard. Flowering stem has a few leaves and reaches heights of 3 ft. Leaves are alternate to one another along the stem forming a rosette. Yellow dock is an ingredient in some herbal toothpastes. A tall seed stalk appears in summer. Copper). Exotic species include Curled Dock ( R. crispus ), Clustered Dock ( R. conglomeratus ), Fiddle Dock ( R. pulcher ) and Broad-leaf Dock ( R. obtusifolius ). A stout, somewhat branched, yellow taproot may extend as deep as 4 feet, with side branches up to 3 feet long. (source) It is a member of the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. This plant is about 2-3 ft. wide and tall and starting growing in my backyard in Georgia, zone 7, USA this summer. The seed is enclosed within the fruit, a papery or corky 3-winged triangular structure. Uprooting plants, chopping and then burying the taproots will control curly dock. [citation needed] Distribution and habitat. Emergence: Curly dock seeds germinate in cool, moist soil from late spring through early fall as conditions permit. Curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a non-native forb in the buckwheat or smartweed family (Polygonaceae). 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