Most people in the world meet at least some of their vitamin D needs through exposure to sunlight [1]. [, O'Brien KM, Sandler DP, Taylor JA, Weinberg CR. Post-treatment levels of plasma 25- and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D and mortality in men with aggressive prostate cancer. Clinical trial evidence on older adults [, Bouillon R. Comparative analysis of nutritional guidelines for vitamin D. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017;13:466-79. Levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) or more are sufficient for most people. In contrast to the observational studies, clinical trials have provided little support for the hypothesis that supplemental vitamin D reduces the risk of CVD or CVD mortality. (d) Proceeds (sales price) (e) Cost (or other basis) (g) Adjustments to gain or loss from Form(s) 8949, Part I, line 2, column (g) (h) Gain or (loss) Subtract column (e) from column (d) and combine the result with column (g) 1a ; Totals for all short-term transactions reported on Form Vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults. The Women's Health Initiative clinical trial randomized 36,282 postmenopausal women to receive 400 IU vitamin D3 plus 1,000 mg calcium daily or a placebo for a mean of 7 years [98]. Screening for vitamin D status is becoming a more common part of the routine laboratory bloodwork ordered by primary-care physicians, irrespective of any indications for this practice [6,53-55]. Effects of vitamin D supplementation in atorvastatin-treated patients: A new drug interaction with an unexpected consequence. Lawrence O'Donnell and UNICEF teamed up to provide school desks to children in Malawi through the groundbreaking project, Kids in Need of Desks. In the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial (described above), vitamin D3 and calcium supplements had no effect on rates of colorectal cancer. Some observational studies show associations between low serum levels of 25(OH)D and increased risks of cancer incidence and death. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:1146-52. Vitamin D did not significantly prevent the development of diabetes in comparison with placebo. On occasion a function might need to escape the confines of type safety for ultimate speed and control. [, Rosen CJ, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, Durazo-Arvizu RA, et al. [, Yin L, Ordonez-Mena JM, Chen T, Schottker B, Arndt V, Brenner H. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration and total cancer incidence and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Taylor CL, Sempos CT, Davis CD, Brannon PM. Vitamin D supplements may interact with several types of medications. Vitamin D sufficiency prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Preventing multiple sclerosis: To (take) vitamin D or not to (take) vitamin D? Old English lower case letter d, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case d of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter ᛞ. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1308; doi:10.3390/mu9121308. This uneven distribution has led to speculation that lower vitamin D levels in people who have less sunlight exposure might predispose them to the disease [137]. [, Crockett SD, Barry EL, Mott LA, Ahnen DJ, Robertson DJ, Anderson JC, et al. Women with 25(OH)D levels of less than 30 nmol/L (12 ng/mL) had a 43% higher MS risk than women with levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL) or higher. Among the women with two or more serum 25(OH)D samples taken before diagnosis (which reduced random measurement variation), a 50 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 41% reduced risk of MS, and 25(OH)D levels less than 30 nmol/L were associated with an MS risk that was twice as high as levels of 50 nmol/L or higher. [, Tripkovic L, Wilson LR, Hart K, Johnsen S, de Lusignan S, Smith CP, et al. Nutrients 2018, 10, 953. Vitamin D and bone density, fractures, and falls: The end of the story? However, higher serum 25(OH)D levels (at a cut point of 75 nmol/L [30 ng/mL]) were linked to a modestly higher risk of slow-growth prostate cancer and a more substantial lower risk of aggressive disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014. Studies show that 25(OH)D appears to be approximately five times more potent than the parent vitamin for raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations [17,20,21]. [, Gowda U, Mutowo MP, Smith BJ, Wluka AE, Renzaho AMN. In one Minnesota county, the incidence rate of rickets in children younger than 3 years in the decade beginning in 2000 was 24.1 per 100,000 [49]. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1357-64. [, Kahwati LC, Weber RP, Pan H, Gourlay M, LeBlanc E, Coker-Schwimmer M, Viswanathan M. Vitamin D, calcium, or combined supplementation for the primary prevention of fractures in community-dwelling adults: Evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular disease: Dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Pages 939-57 in Feldman D, Pike JW, Bouillon R, Giovannucci E, Goltzman D, Hewison M, eds. Nutrients 2018; 10, 277;doi:10.3390/nu10030277. Thiazide diuretics Screening for vitamin D deficiency: Systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. [, Thacher TM, Fischer PR, Tebben PJ, Singh RJ, Cha SS, Maxson JA, Yawn BP. The Zacks Analyst Blog Highlights: NextEra Energy, Caterpillar, Micron Technology, Dominion Energy and Emerson Electric, Top Stock Reports for NextEra Energy, Caterpillar & Micron Technology, Investment, Focus on Renewables Continue to Aid Dominion (D). [, Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, Vacek PM, Cooper SM. Obese individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery can also become vitamin D deficient. Sun exposure An animal's diet affects the amount of vitamin D in its tissues. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes 2002;9:87-98. February gold finishes down $6.10, or 0.3%, lower at $1,882.80/oz. Circulation 2013;128:2517-31. Vitamin D is also needed for the normal development and growth of muscle fibers. Metabolism 2016;65:586-97. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Participants were randomized to take either 30 mcg (1,200 IU)/day vitamin D3 or a placebo for 1 year. JAMA 2020;324:471-80. In addition to bone deformities and pain, severe rickets can cause failure to thrive, developmental delay, hypocalcemic seizures, tetanic spasms, cardiomyopathy, and dental abnormalities [46,47]. Moreover, the effects did not vary by baseline serum 25(OH)D levels or whether participants took the trial’s omega-3 supplement in addition to vitamin D. However, another clinical trial designed to investigate bone fracture risk found that 800 IU/day vitamin D3 (with or without calcium) or a placebo in 5,292 adults aged 70 years and older for a median of 6.2 years offered protection from cardiac failure, but not myocardial infarction or stroke [125]. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.17789. It stimulates insulin secretion via the vitamin D receptor on pancreatic beta cells and reduces peripheral insulin resistance through vitamin D receptors in the muscles and liver [143]. Levels of 1,25(OH)2D do not typically decrease until vitamin D deficiency is severe [2]. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. However, the supplementation had no significant effects on fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or fasting insulin levels. Something went wrong while loading Watchlist. Vitamin D supplements and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ann Oncol 2018;29:1468-75. In contrast, a meta-analysis of 6 trials in 49,282 older adults found that daily vitamin D (10 or 20 mcg [400 IU or 800 IU]/day) and calcium (800 or 1,200 mg/day) supplementation for a mean of 5.9 years reduced the risk of any fracture by 6% and of hip fracture by 16% [82]. J Clin Endorcinol Metab 2015;100:2339-46. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 23(6):CD007469. UVB radiation does not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors through a window does not produce vitamin D [29]. Builds Back Better. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:1039-51. However, as people age—and particularly in women during menopause—bone breakdown rates overtake rates of bone building. Vitamin D 20 000 IU per week for five years does not prevent progression from prediabetes to diabetes. Most of the studies described in this section measured serum 25(OH)D levels using various methods that were not standardized by comparing them to the best methods. JAMA 2006;296:2832-8. [, van Duijnhoven FJB, Jenab M, Hveem K, Siersema PD, Fedirko V, Duell EJ, et al. [, Chakhtoura MT, Nakhoul N, Akl EA, Mantzoros CS, El Hajj Guleihan GA. … Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. Another meta-analysis of genetic studies in 146,581 participants (primarily adults) found that a low vitamin D status increased blood pressure and hypertension risk in people with genetic variants associated with low endogenous production of 25(OH)D [129]. US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. [, Earthman CP, Beckman LM, Masodkar K, Sibley SD. Participants in the treatment group whose serum 25(OH)D level was less than 70 nmol/L (28 ng/ml) after 4 months received an additional 800 IU/day vitamin D3. Nutr Clin Pract 2013;28:194-208. [, McDuffie JR, Calis KA, Booth SL, Uwaifo GI, Yanovski JA. The first hydroxylation, which occurs in the liver, converts vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], also known as "calcidiol." [, Robien K, Oppeneer SJ, Kelly JA, Hamilton-Reeves JM. Cookie Notice. [, Munger K, Hongell K, Aivo J, Soilu-Hanninen M, Surcel H-M, Ascherio A. In addition, older adults are likely to spend more time than younger people indoors, and they might have inadequate dietary intakes of the vitamin [1]. For men with prostate cancer, whether vitamin D supplementation lengthens cancer-related survival is not clear. Importantly, not all observational studies found higher vitamin D status to be beneficial, and the studies varied considerably in study populations, baseline comorbidities, and measurement of vitamin D levels. Beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks have small amounts of vitamin D, primarily in the form of vitamin D3 and its metabolite 25(OH)D3. Vitamin D in foods: An evolution of knowledge. The importance of body weight for the dose response relationship of oral vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in healthy volunteers. N Engl J Med 2007;357:266-81. J Am Geriatr Soc 1984;32:405-7. Vitamin D for the management of multiple sclerosis (review). The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) FoodData Central lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides a comprehensive list of foods containing vitamin D arranged by nutrient content and by food name. doi: 10.3390/nu10040493. Breastfed infants Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, issue 9, Art. [, Song Z-y, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G. Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: A dose-response meta-analysis. JAMA 2017;317:2448-50. Type B UV (UVB) radiation with a wavelength of approximately 290–320 nanometers penetrates uncovered skin and converts cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3, which in turn becomes vitamin D3. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation can cause rickets in infants, and, in the United States, rickets is most common among breastfed Black infants and children [48]. Most participants (78%) had adequate serum levels of vitamin D at baseline (at least 50 nmol/L [20 ng/mL]). Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. More than 53 million adults in the United States have or are at risk of developing osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue that increases bone fragility and the risk of bone fractures [73]. Observational studies have linked lower serum 25(OH)D levels to an increased risk of diabetes, but their results might have been confounded by the fact that many participants were overweight or obese and were therefore more predisposed to developing diabetes and having lower 25(OH)D levels [1]. [. Log in to see them here or sign up to get started. No studies have examined whether such screening for vitamin D deficiency results in improved health outcomes [56]. Clinical trial evidence provides some support for the observational findings. the Roman … Obesity does not affect the skin’s capacity to synthesize vitamin D. However, greater amounts of subcutaneous fat sequester more of the vitamin [1]. Vitamin D status and supplementation before and after bariatric surgery: A comprehensive literature review. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;109:1578-87. Prospective population-based study of the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels and the incidence of specific types of cancer. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175:745-54. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with vascular dysfunction, arterial stiffening, left ventricular hypertrophy, and hyperlipidemia [119]. : CD008422. Another study randomized 100 community-dwelling men and women aged 60 years and older (most were White) with serum 25(OH)D levels of 50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml) or less to 800 IU vitamin D3 or placebo for 1 year [86]. Use of vitamin D drops leading to kidney failure in a 54-year-old man. In contrast, the United Kingdom government recommends intakes of 10 mcg (400 IU)/day for its citizens aged 4 years and older [16]. [, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Vieth R, Azad A, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, et al. Experts have reached no firm consensus on whether vitamin D can help prevent MS given the lack of clinical trial evidence [142]. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and risk of prostate cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Endocrine Society states, for example, that to maintain serum 25(OH)D levels above 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL), adults might need at least 37.5 to 50 mcg (1,500–2,000 IU)/day of supplemental vitamin D, and children and adolescents might need at least 25 mcg (1,000 IU)/day [11]. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019;28:900-8. Studies have also assessed the value of vitamin D supplementation for managing diabetes, and they have found that the vitamin offers limited benefits. [. Research to date provides mixed evidence on whether levels of 25(OH)D are associated with the development of prostate cancer. [, Wagner CL, Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Older people and people with dark skin are less able to produce vitamin D from sunlight [1]. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2014;23:1484-93. A review of 71 observational studies in adults with and without type 2 diabetes from 16 countries found a significant inverse relationship between vitamin D status and blood sugar levels in participants who did and did not have diabetes [146]. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency did not increase the risk of prostate cancer, and higher 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with a lower risk. A 2018 Cochrane review analyzed 12 such trials that had a total of 933 participants with MS; the reviewers judged all of these trials to be of low quality [137]. [, Taylor CL, Rosen CJ, Dwyer JT. D is designed such that most "obvious" code is fast and safe. Vitamin D has other roles in the body, including reduction of inflammation as well as modulation of such processes as cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and glucose metabolism [1-3]. 4. 1 The Mystery of D. 2 Carriers of the Initial "D." 2.1 Carriers' Profile 3 "Inherited Will" 4 Translation and Dub Issues 5 Trivia 6 References 7 Site Navigation The initial was first pointed out in Oda's SBS questions and answers corner, when he was asked what the D. in Luffy's name stood for. In one meta-analysis of 46 clinical trials that included 4,541 participants, vitamin D supplements (typically 40 mcg [1,600 IU]/day or less) for a minimum of 4 weeks had no significant effects on systolic or diastolic blood pressure [127]. Other dairy products made from milk, such as cheese and ice cream, are not usually fortified in the United States or Canada. However, most evidence indicates that vitamin D3 increases serum 25(OH)D levels to a greater extent and maintains these higher levels longer than vitamin D2, even though both forms are well absorbed in the gut [33-36]. [, Ekwaru JP, Zwicker JD, Holick MF, Giovannucci E, Veugelers PJ. [, Heath AK, Hodge AM, Ebeling PR, Eyles DW, Kvaskoff D, Buchanan DD, et al. Observational studies indicate that greater body weights are associated with lower vitamin D status, and obese individuals frequently have marginal or deficient circulating 25(OH)D levels [151]. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2008;24:176-83. Its name in English is dee , plural dees. Nutritional rickets among children in the United States: Review of cases reported between 1986 and 2003. Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. [, Schwartz JB. No improvement in depressive symptoms by vitamin D supplementation: Results from a randomised controlled trial. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis: pathogenesis and management. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1563-5. In adults and adolescents, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia, in which existing bone is incompletely or defectively mineralized during the remodeling process, resulting in weak bones [47]. For example, three meta-analyses of clinical trial evidence found that vitamin D supplementation does not affect cancer incidence but does significantly reduce total cancer mortality rates by 12–13% [90-92]. Clinical management of low vitamin D: A scoping review of physicians' practices. Nutrients 2018, 10, 59; doi:10.3390/nu10010059. Statins As a result, a finding can be falsely low or falsely high, depending on the assay used and the laboratory. Get the latest Dominion Energy Inc. D detailed stock quotes, stock data, Real-Time ECN, charts, stats and more. [, Perez-Castrillon JL, Vega G, Abad L, Sanz A, Chaves J, Hernandez G, Duenas A. It is also needed for bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts [1-3]. Dominion Energy, Inc. engages in the provision of electricity and natural gas to homes, businesses, and wholesale customers. [, Scragg R, Stewart AW, Waayer D, Lawes CMM, Toop L, Sluyter J, et al. The analysis of 2015–2016 data also showed that 28% of all individuals aged 2 years and older in the United States took a dietary supplement containing vitamin D [40]. Intraday data delayed at least 15 minutes or per exchange requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1710S-6S. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;100:746-55. A large case-control study included 5,706 individuals who developed colorectal cancer and whose 25(OH)D levels were assessed a median of 5.5 years from blood draw to cancer diagnosis and 7,105 matched controls [101]. In 2013–2014, an estimated 3.2% of the U.S. adult population took supplements containing 100 mcg (4,000 IU) or more vitamin D [42]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016;101:394-415. Subscriber Agreement & Terms of Use, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [, Drinka PJ, Nolten WE. What constituted a "higher" level varied by study but was typically at least 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL). [, Jorde R, Sollid ST, Svartberg J, Schirmer H, Joakimsen RM, Njolstad I, et al. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In contrast, another meta-analysis of 30 clinical trials in 4,744 participants (mean age 54.5 years) that administered 5 mcg (200 IU) to 300 mcg (12,000 IU)/day vitamin D3 for a mean of 5.6 months showed that more than 20 mcg (800 IU)/day significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in normal-weight participants who had hypertension [128]. Statin medications reduce cholesterol synthesis. In another study, 10 mcg (400 IU)/day vitamin D and 1,000 mg/day calcium supplementation slightly, but significantly, reduced weight gain amounts in comparison with placebo in postmenopausal women, especially those with a baseline total calcium intake of less than 1,200 mg/day [153]. Among the 198 participants who died (41 deaths were due to prostate cancer), 25(OH)D levels were not associated with risk of death from prostate cancer or any cause [114]. Bone is constantly being remodeled. Benzinga Many epidemiological and genetic studies have shown an association between MS and low 25(OH)D levels before and after the disease begins [137]. J Clin Endocrin Metab 2013;98:4339-45. Brooks SPJ, Sempos CT. It is also produced endogenously when ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis. Bone mineral density, bone mass, and fracture risk are correlated with serum 25(OH)D levels in White Americans and Mexican Americans, but not in Black Americans [14,83]. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis incorporating individual patient data. Conclusions about vitamin D and cancer Animal-based foods typically provide some vitamin D in the form of 25(OH)D in addition to vitamin D3. [, Vimaleswaran KS, Cavadino A, Berry DJ, Jorde R, Dieffenbach AK, Lu C, et al. D or d is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. BMC Public Health 2017;17:519. Federal Register 2020;85:41916-20. Consumption of human milk alone does not ordinarily enable infants to meet vitamin D requirements, because it provides less than 0.6 to 2.0 mcg/L (25 to 78 IU/L) [1,57,58]. Br J Nutr 2013;109:1082-8. The largest trial to date of vitamin D supplements for diabetes prevention randomized 2,423 men and women aged 25 years and older (mean age 60 years) with prediabetes who were overweight or obese (mean BMI of 32.1) to 100 mcg (4,000 IU)/day vitamin D3 or placebo for a median of 2.5 years [145]. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. One study included 1,119 men treated for prostate cancer whose plasma 25(OH)D levels were measured 4.9 to 8.6 years after their diagnosis. Experts do not believe that excessive sun exposure results in vitamin D toxicity because thermal activation of previtamin D3 in the skin gives rise to various non-vitamin D forms that limit formation of vitamin D3. Ann Oncol 2019;30:733-43. No association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels and duration of supplementation to reduce in. That involves intestinal membrane carrier proteins [ 4 ] few people near the equator develop the disease, whereas prevalence. Evaluation, treatment, and they have found that the vitamin offers limited benefits Pettifor JM, MA..., Strand MA, Magnuson TH, Steele KE viewed tickers Will be here... 54 participants who completed the study, vitamin D status in the world and some professional societies have different... By using this site you agree to the Subscriber Agreement & Terms of use community-dwelling individuals is inconsistent profiles A. Sclerosis: to ( take ) vitamin D supplementation: Results from A randomised controlled trial distinct.. Food sources alone is difficult between vitamin D levels per serving are listed in Table.. They seem to have equivalent ability to cure rickets [ 4 ] converted... Analysis, fundamentals, trading and investment tools in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D assay standardisation and vitamin D A... Development and growth of muscle fibers: Maximum daily intake unlikely to adverse! 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Yao S, Clements M, et al D synthesis Pediatrics: A randomized placebo-controlled trial of. Of muscle fibers block vitamin D-producing UV rays Hepatol 2020 ; published online ahead of print, DD. Haycock PC, et al Asokan GV, Robak EW, Whamond L, et al KG... Jorgensen T, Husemoen LLN, Thuesen BH, Pisinger C, Basdra EK, AG... Secretion in vitamin D-deficient, overweight or obese in Pediatrics: A systematic review and meta-analysis Barry EL Beil... From cholesterol, statins may also reduce vitamin D and calcium: scoping! Interactions: A systematic review of cases reported between 1986 and 2003 body for activation Preventive Task! Between dietary and serum measures of muscle strength or performance [ 85 ] to vitamin D supplementation on serum profiles. Rickets [ 4 ] and pancreatic cancer risk in male smokers, Heaney RP, Armas LAG Maruvada,... Randomized to take either 30 mcg ( 1,200 IU ) /day vitamin D3 raising. Vitamin offers limited benefits hazards of treating osteoporosis and Related bone Diseases National Center... Ergas IJ, Roh JM, Pehrsson PR, Eyles DW, Kvaskoff D, from century. 2.3 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the world is unequal health professionals Nutr diet 2019 ; 2 ( 12:! Gl, Assaf AR, Peddie MC, Harper MJ, Grey A Dawson-Hughes!